SCIENCE



NATURAL SCIENCE

HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS


During this term we are studying the vital function of Nutrition. Many body systems work for it. Let's go to see them.

                                          video 1 

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Digestion is the process that enables us to obtain nutrients from the food we eat.

The digestive system is a long tube that starts in the mouth and ends in the anus

Other organs
 are the stomach, the small intestine and

the large intestine

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The respiratory system is the group of organs that help

our body obtain oxygen from the air.
The lungs, trachea and bronchi are parts of it.

Our body needs oxygen for many processes such as digestion


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The circulatory system constantly moves blood inside

our body.

The heart pumps blood through blood vessels. 

 Arteries veins and capillaries are blood vessels.



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 The kidneys filter the blood, eliminate waste and

produce urine. These are one part  of the

the excretory system with the bladder.







After Halloween we have started to study the Vital Function of Reproduction. Thanks to this we can preserve our species.

                                          video6



People reproduce. When a man and a woman are old enough, they can make
a baby together. This is called sexual reproduction.

Men and women have reproductive systems.
These consist of their sex organs.
Men and women have different sex organs.

Men have a penis, testicles and a prostate gland.



Men make sperm.


Women have a vulva, vagina, uterus and ovaries.




Women make eggs.

When a sperm from a man joins with an egg from a woman,
it is called fertilisation.



A foetus begins to grow in the woman’s uterus





 Pregnancy

                                          video7



Pregnancy is the formation of a baby in its

mother's womb.



. Babies are formed inside their mother's womb or uterus.










The baby or foetus is connected to the

mother by a tube called the umbilical cord.





Through this tube the baby receives
everything it needs to develop, such as
food and oxygen.


            




 Development of the baby pregnancy



At the beginning of pregnancy, the foetus is

as small as a grain of sand.






After three months, it is about ten

centimetres long. The head, legs, arms,

fingers and heart are fully formed.






At six months, the baby is about thirty

centimetres long, and moves a lot.



At nine months, the baby is about fifty
centimetres long, and is ready to be born.



VIDEO





SENSITIVITY




Through sensitivity, we respond to changes in the external environment.
Various organs and systems are involved in this example;


First, the sense organs capture the information.

Second, the brain receives and interprets this information and decides how to act.

Third, the muscles receive orders from the brain, and they move the body.

External Coordination

External environment involves the sense organs, the nervous system and the locomotor system:

The sense organs




The sense organs obtain information from the external environment. Sense organs have special cells that can detect stimuli
from the environment


Locomotor system




The locomotor system produces movement when the muscles and bones work together.

The locomotor system is formed by the muscles and the bones

The ends of bones are covered in cartilageCartilage is an elastic material.

Bones meet at joints.

Joints are held together by ligaments.

 The muscles are joined to the bones by tendons.

The nervous system




The nervous system is formed of nervous tissue.

This tissue is made up of one type of cell, neurons.


 Neurons



 Neurons are a type of cell with three parts:

The body, which contains the nucleus and organelles.

Dendrites,  branched structures.  receive information from the sense organs or from other neurons.

The axon, h transmits information to other neurons and sends orders to organs. 

There are two types of nervous system

 A) The central nervous system



The central nervous system has two parts: the brain and the spinal cord.

The brain is the control centre of the body. It is the most important organ, and has three parts:

– The cerebrum controls our voluntary actions and our emotions, and stores memory.

– The cerebellum co-ordinates movements and balance in our body.

– The brain stem regulates the organ activity.

The spinal cord goes from the brain to the bottom of the spine. The spinal cord is protected by the spinal column.

B) The peripheral nervous system


The peripheral nervous system is formed by the nerves. Nerves are found in every part of the body. Nerves carry information.

There are two types of nerves:

Sensory nerves carry information from the sense organs to the central nervous system.

Motor nerves carry orders from the central nervous system to the muscles and the organs.

Many movements that we make are voluntary, such as writing. Others we do involuntarily, without thinking. These are reflex movements.

Internal co-ordination


Our internal environment is everything that we have inside of us, for example, our blood, kidneys and digestive system.
Involuntary muscles are not part of the locomotor system. They are part of many organs in our body. 

Involuntary muscles function independently from our will: we are not conscious of them and we cannot control their function. 

In many cases, we don’t even know when they are moving.

The endocrine system


 
The endocrine system is formed by organs called endocrine glands. These glands make chemicals called hormones. 
Endocrine glands release hormones into the blood. 
Hormones are substances that act like messengers: they transmit orders

The endocrine glands

 These are four of the glands in the endocrine system:

The pituitary gland, which is found in the brain.

It produces hormones that direct the activity of other endocrine glands.  The pituitary gland also produces the hormone that controls growth.

The thyroid gland, which produces hormones like thyroxine that helps us make full use of nutrients.

The pancreas, which produces insulin that regulates the amount of sugar circulating in our blood

The ovaries in women and the testicles in men, which produce sex hormones that determine masculine and feminine sexual characteristics.

 SPANISH SUMMARY





THE PLANT KINGDOM

Plants





Classification of plants




Photosynthesis




Reproduction







CELLS & ANIMAL KINGDOMS





Introduction


The microscope was invented about 300 years ago. A microscope is an instrument that consists of one or various lenses. These lenses magnify the image of an object many times

Scientists started studying living things under microscopes and realised that all animals  and plants are made up of many tiny parts called cells

What are cells?

Cells are like tiny sacks full of liquid. They have many smaller parts inside. There are many different types of cells. They differ in shape,  in size and  in the tasks they carry out. Most cells are so small you cannot see them with the naked eye.

Cells are living things. This means that they carry out the life processes of nutrition, reproduction and  sensitivity


Parts of a Cell
Cells  have 3 main parts

The membrane is a covering which surrounds the cell and separates it from the outside.
The nucleus is the part which controls the function of the cell.
The cytoplasm is the liquid between the nucleus and the membrane. It is formed by water with different substances dissolved in it. The cytoplasm contains lots of organelles that carry out different functions.





Animal and Plant Cells
Animal and plant cells are different.
Animal cells can be many different shapes, for example, disc-shaped, star-shaped  or rectangular. Sometimes their shape  is very irregular.

Plant cells  are usually bigger and have a regular shape. They also have a hard cell wall around the membrane. This is why some plant stems are very hard. Plant cells have special chloroplasts to carry out photosynthesis


              
Unicellular and Muticellular living things
All living things are made up of cells. Animals and plants are formed by a large number  of cells which are organised according to their fuctions. They are called multicellular living things

Other living things are made up of a single cell. They are called unicellular living things.

These living things are found everwhere:  in water, in soil, in the air  and  in our bodies. However, you can only see them through  a microscope.

Multicellular living things : animals and plants

Living things are classified into large groups called kingdoms. There are five kingdoms:
1.- The animal kingdom
2.- The plant kingdom
3.- The fungi kingdom
4.- The bacteria kingdom
5.- The fifth kingdom
1.- Animal Kingdom
Animals are multicellular living things that eat other living things. They can move from one place to another, and they can react quickly to stimuli. To do this, they have a nervous system and sense organs.

2.- Plant Kingdom
Plants are multicellular living things that use sunlight and substances from the soil  and air to make their own food. Plants cannot move around because they are fixed to  the ground.


 * Cells , Tissues,  Organs, Systems and Organisms  (for animals and plants).

Multicellular living things are made up of many different types of cells. Similar cells with  a common function are grouped together to form a tissue.

Ex: Animals
a) Many muscle cells grouped together form the  muscle tissue.
b) Many  bone cells  grouped together  form the bone  tissue  of the skeleton.

Tissues are organised into organs.
Organs are made up of a group of tissues that work together to carry out a common function.
Ex:  muscles, bones, the heart, the lungs or the leaf of a plant are organs.

These organs form systems. Systems are made up of a group of organs that work together to carry out a common function.

Ex:
Movement: The muscular system makes our body move
Digestion: The digestive system enables us to obtain the nutrients necessary for life.

Finally, when all the systems work together, they form an organism, which is a complete living thing. Ex: a cat, a human being, etc…

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     1- Cell  ____  2- Tissue ____ 3- Organ ____ 4- System ____  5- Organisms

Other kingdoms
3.- The fungi kingdom
Fungi can be unicellular, but most are multicellular. They are usually found underground, on pieces of wood or on decomposing food

Like animals, fungi do not make their own food. They depend on other organisms for food. Like plants, they cannot move by themselves and are fixed to something

Some fungi produce mushrooms. Mushrooms are the visible part of a fungus. Mushrooms are formed by long threads called hyphae that grow underground to absorb food. Later, a mushroom grows above ground, so that the fungus can reproduce.

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4.- The bacteria kingdom
Bacteria are the most abundant of all living things. They can be found everywhere in the world.

Bacteria are the smallest living things. They can only be seen through a microscope. For this reason, they are called microorganisms or microbes.

Bacteria are unicellular and can live in different environments: in water, soil, air or inside other living things

Some bacteria are helpful, like the ones we use to make yoghurt, cheese or bread. Some bacteria are harmful because they can cause diseases like pharyngitis or cholera.

5.- The fifth kingdom
This last kingdom is made up of all the living things that are not included in the previous kingdoms.

Living things in the fifth kingdom can be unicellular or multicellular.

Protozoa are unicellular microbes that feed on other living things.

Algae live in water and make their own food, like plants. Many algae are formed by a single cell, but others are multicellular and can be  very large. 


¿?.- Viruses
Viruses are so small and simple that Scientifics cannot agree if they are living things or not.

For this reason, they are not included in any  of the five kingdoms.

Viruses can only reproduce inside other living things. They cause illnesses like influenza, measles, chicken pox and AIDS.



SOCIAL SCIENCE





POPULATION AND ECONOMY IN SPAIN

A) POPULATION
Population
It is the number of people who live in a particular area.
Growth of Population
Population can grow because of natural and migration growth.
Natural growth
The difference between number of people who are born and number of people who are dead.
Migratory growth
Difference between number of inmigrants who come to live in an area and number of emigrants who leave the place where they life.

An  emigrant
He/she  is a person who leaves their country to live in another country
An immigrant
He/she  is a person who comes to live in a foreign country.
Today, Spain is home to more than five million immigrants.
Thanks to that, the population of Spain continues to increase.



Kinds of migration inside of Spain
Internal migration is migration within the same country
International emigration is migration from one country to another.
International immigration. People from other countries come to a  new country looking for work
Population Density
Population density show us if a place has a large or small population in relation to its area. Area is measured in square kilometers.
Population density is the number of inhabitants per square kilometre.
Population and Economy
Population can be divided into two groups:
Active population.

This includes people who are of  legal working age (between 16 and 67) and are healthy and able to work

 It can be employed or unemployed.

People who are employed are working and earn money in exchange.

People who are unemployed are looking for work.

Inactive population.

This includes people who are not of  legal working age (children
under 16 and retired people) and people who do not receive a salary (students, people who are ill, etc).

The active population works in three economic sectors: primary, secondary and tertiary.
B) ECONOMY


Economic Sectors
The primary sector
Agriculture.

 Dry Crops: Cereals, grapes and olives.
 (They are grown mainly in CastileLa Mancha, CastileLeon  and Andalusia.)

Irrigated crops: Fruits and vegetables.
(They are grown mainly in Andalusia, the Community of Valencia and the Region of Murcia).

Livestock farming.

Pigs are the most abundant livestock in Spain.
(Catalonia and Aragon).

Cattle are the second most abundant livestock.
Cows (Extremadura, CastileLeon and CastileLa Mancha.)

Poultry farming is abundant throughout the whole of Spain.

Fishing. Most fishing in Spain is coastal or inshore.
Galicia and Andalusia are the Communities with most fishermen
Mining. The mining industry has lost much of its active population.

The secondary sector

This sector includes industry and construction.

a) Industry. The three most important types of industry are:

Primary industries
They  transform raw material into other materials.
The metallurgical and chemical industries are the most important in Spain.
(Basque country, Catalonia, Community of Madrid and Andalusia)
Equipment and machinery industries

They produce tools and machinery which other industries need. Ex:  robots. Machines, cars ships and electrical supplies.

(They are mainly located in Catalonia, the Community of Madrid and the Community of  Valencia)


Consumer industries

They  manufacture products to sell directly to consumers. Ex: Food industries manufactures bread.
 Food, textiles, furniture and graphic arts are the most important consumer industries. (whole of Spain)

Construction industry.
This industry makes houses, buildings and public works, such as bridges and motorways


The tertiary sector
The tertiary sector is also called the service sector.
The tertiary sector does not provide us with material goods.
It includes activities which provide services such as educational, health, financial, administrative, trade, tourism, transport and communications services.
Some services, such as hospitals, universities and administrative services, are mainly found in cities

Trade

Trade is the buying and selling of products. These products come from the primary and secondary sectors

There are two types of trade:

 Domestic trade
It is commerce within a country. In other words, products are made and
sold within the same country. For example, agricultural products that are grown inAndalusia are sold in Galicia.


Foreign trade
It is commerce with other countries. In other words, products are bought from and sold to other countries.

Exports
 They are products which are sold to other countries. Spain exports many products, such as books, shoes and cars
Imports
They  are products bought from other countries. Spain imports products such as petroleum and gas, minerals and computers.
Transport
So that products can reach shops and the consumers, we
use various means of transport.
There are three main types of transport:

Land transport.

Products are transported in lorries along motorways or on trains, by railways. The majority of products are transported by lorry.
Most of Spain is connected by a network of main roads and motorways.

Sea transport.

 Ships leave from and arrive at Spain’s seaports. Merchandise is transported on large cargo ships. Spain’s busiest ports are in Algerciras, Barcelona, Bilbao and Valencia


Air transport.

Products are transported in aeroplanes that  take of f from and land at airports
Barajas is the busiest airport in Spain for merchandise, as well as for passengers.

Tourism

Tourism is travel to other places for the purpose of relaxation or fun.

Kinds of tourism:

Sun and sand tourism:
It  is the most popular type of tourism in Spain.

Rural tourism:
It  is popular in Spain’s mountain and coastal areas.
Cultural tourism:
It  is popular in cities with rich cultural and historical heritage, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Toledo, Segovia and Seville.




 TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION AND INSTITUTIONS  (Spanish topic)

El territorio de España









España se encuentra en el hemisferio norte, al suroeste de Europa. El territorio de España está formado por la mayor parte de la península Ibérica, las islas Baleares, las islas Canarias y las ciudades de Ceuta y Melilla. También forman parte del territorio español el espacio aéreo que cubre sus tierras y la zona de mar cercana a sus costas.

La península Ibérica
Está rodeada por el mar Cantábrico, al norte; el océano Atlántico, al oeste; y el mar Mediterráneo, al sur y este. Se une a Europa por los Pirineos y está separada de África por el estrecho de Gibraltar.



Las islas Baleares
Están situadas en el mar Mediterráneo. Son cinco islas: Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Formentera y Cabrera.
Las islas Canarias
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Están situadas en el océano Atlántico, frente a las costas de África. Son siete islas: Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma y El Hierro.




Las ciudades de Ceuta y Melilla

Están situadas en el norte de África,en la costa Mediterránea

Los límites de España

España se encuentra en el hemisferio norte, al suroeste de Europa. Los límites de España son:
Al norte: Limita con Francia, Andorra y el mar Cantábrico.
Al sur: Limita con el mar Mediterráneo, Marruecos y el océano Atlántico.
Al este: Limita con el mar Mediterráneo.
Al oeste: Limita con Portugal y con el océano Atlántico.


La organización del territorio de España

Desde 1.978, España está organizada en diecisiete Comunidades Autónomas y dos ciudades Autónomas: Ceuta y Melilla.
Las Comunidades Autónomas está formadas por una o varias provincias, y cada provincia está formada por varios municipios.

La Comunidades Autónomas y las Ciudades Autónomas tienen un parlamento, presidente y gobierno autonómico.
Las provincias tienen como institución de gobierno la Diputación Provincial. Las islas Canarias están gobernadas por un Cabildo en cada isla.
Los municipios están gobernados por los ayuntamientos formados por el alcalde y los concejales.


LAS INSTITUCIONES DE ESPAÑA

Las instituciones de España

En España las principales instituciones de gobierno son la Jefatura del Estado, las Cortes Generales, el Gobierno y los Tribunales de Justicia.
La Constitución española
La Constitución es la ley más importante de España. Todas las demás leyes deben estar de acuerdo con ella.
La Constitución fue aprobada por los españoles en 1.978. La Constitución establece los derechos y deberes de los ciudadanos; la forma de Estado, una monarquía parlamentaria; y el funcionamiento de las instituciones; y en ella se describen los símbolos nacionales, como la bandera, el himno y el escudo.



El jefe del Estado

España es una monarquía parlamentaria. Esto quiere decir que el rey Felipe VI es el jefe del Estado pero debe aceptar las decisiones de las Cortes Generales y cumplir la Constitución.
La función principal del rey es representar a España en las relaciones con otros países. Además, es el jefe supremo de las Fuerzas Armadas.
En España, la monarquía es hereditaria, es decir, se transmite de padres a hijos. La heredera de la Corona es la Príncesa de Asturias, Leonor de Borbón.
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Las Cortes Generales.
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Las Cortes Generales son la institución que se encarga de elaborar y aprobar las leyes y de controlar la acción del gobierno. Están constituidas por dos cámaras: el Congreso de Diputados y el Senado.
....Sus miembros son elegidos cada cuatro años por los ciudadanos españoles mayores de dieciocho años en las elecciones generales y representan a todos los españoles. Los diputados eligen entre sus miembros al Presidente del Gobierno.

El Gobierno

El Gobierno se encarga de dirigir y administrar el Estado, de acuerdo con las leyes, decidir los objetivos económicos, sociales y políticos y dirigir las relaciones internacionales.
El Gobierno está formado por el Presidente y los ministros.
El presidente. Es elegido por el Congreso de los Diputados y nombrado por el rey. Se encarga de dirigir y coordinar el Gobierno y de responder ante el Congreso de las acciones del Gobierno.Los ministros. Son elegidos por el presidente del Gobierno y nombrados por el rey. Se ocupan de gobernar en diferentes áreas, como la educación, la sanidad, la economía, la cultura o el medio ambiente.

Los Tribunales de Justicia
Los Tribunales de Justicia se encargan de hacer cumplir las leyes y de juzgar a quienes comenten algún delito. Están formados por los jueces y los magistrados. Los tribunales más importantes son:
El Tribunal Supremo. Se encarga de confirmar o anular las decisiones de los tribunales inferiores.
El Tribunal Constitucional. Se encarga de determinar si las nuevas leyes, aprobadas por las Cortes o los Parlamentos Autonómicos, están de acuerdo con la Constitución.






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